We provide additional material for each method to ease the understanding and to improve your learning experience.

Contingency analysis

Example | Business
Is firm performance related to a firm’s customer centricity?
Example | Medicine
Is there an association between smoking and dying of lung cancer?
Example | Psychology
Are self-regulation in childhood and subsequent levels of achievement related?
Example | Biology
Are weather conditions (rainy vs. sunny) associated with the occurrence of ticks?

Contingency analysis examines relations among two or more nominally scaled variables. For example, we can investigate the relation between smoking (smoker versus nonsmoker) and lung cancer (yes, no). We do so with the help of a cross-table (contingency table) that maps the occurrence of combinations of levels of the nominal variables.